Clinical Research

There is a great variety of research regarding radiofrequency treatment, from basic science (lab studies in molecular science) to PhD thesis, minor thesis and published papers; which cover a wide range of applications and indications.

When using search engines and databases to perform literature searches, it is important to note the different terms used for the same type of technology. Currently, there is not an agreed term to use in scientific publication, so all terms must be searched and can include the specific radiofrequency figure e.g. 448kHz or 0.448MHz. Other search terms can be added when looking for specific injuries, pathologies or therapeutic application.

List of different terminology for radiofrequency currents;

  • Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF)
  • Capacitive Resistive Electric Transfer (CRET) (note this is the English translation from Spanish and Italian TECAR)
  • Transferencia Eléctrica CApacitva Resistiva (TECAR)
  • Radiofrequency Electric current (RFEC)

While some research can be utilized between different manufacturers with slightly different radio frequencies, some research is very specific to that radiofrequency, as in the case of molecular research.

It is also important to note that not all the devices are built the same. Radiofrequency currents can be greatly influenced by the movement of the electrode and cable that delivers them. Many companies have not addressed this issue and therefore radiofrequency is not fixed but variable as well as the power not being completely stable.

Cell and molecular bases

Hernández-Bule ML, Trillo, Martínez-García MA, Abilahoud C, Úbeda A. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Radiofrequency Electric Stimulation. Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2017;7(12): 10.

Hernández-Bule ML, Martinez-Botas J, Trillo MA, Paino CL, Ubeda A. Antiadipogenic Effects of Subthermal Electric Stimulation at 448 Khz on Differentiating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Mol Med Rep,2016; 13, (5): 3895-903.

Hernández-Bule ML, Paino CL, Trillo MA, Ubeda A. Electric Stimulation at 448 Khz Promotes Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;34(5): 1741-55.


Kumaran B, Watson T. Skin Thermophysiological Effects of 448 Khz Capacitive Resistive Monopolar Radiofrequency in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Crossover Study and Comparison with Pulsed Shortwave Therapy. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018: 1-12.

Tashiro Y, Hasegawa S, Yokota Y, Nishiguchi S, Fukutani N, Shirooka H, Tasaka S, Matsushita T, Matsubara K, Nakayama Y, Sonoda T, Tsuboyama T, Aoyama T. Effect of Capacitive and Resistive Electric Transfer on Haemoglobin Saturation and Tissue Temperature. Int J Hyperthermia. 2017: 1-7.

Kumaran B, Watson T. Thermal build-up, decay and retention responses to local therapeutic application of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency: A prospective randomised crossover study in healthy adults. Int J Hyperthermia. 2015; 31(8): 883-895.

Ley-Valle A. Hipertermia intracraneal no invasiva mediante la técnica de Transferencia Eléctrica Capacitiva -TEC_ (*). Resultados de la termometría cerebral e intratumoral. Neurocirugía. 2003;14:5.

Inflammation / Oedema

Bito T, Tashiro Y, Suzuki Y, Kajiwara Y, Zeidan H, Kawagoe M, et al. Acute Effects of Capacitive and Resistive electric transfer on the Achilles tendon. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2018.

Naranjo P, López Andrino R, Pinto H. First Assessment of the Proionic Effects Resulting from Non-Thermal Application of 448 Khz Monopolar Radiofrequency for Reduction of Edema Caused by Fractional CO2 Laser Facial Rejuvenation Treatments. Journal of Surgery. 2015:3(1): 21.

Regeneration / Scarring

Armenesi R. Effetti della biostimolazione con la tecnologia INDIBA Deep Care sulle ustioni in fase acuta [Minor]. Bari: Università degli studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”; 2017.

Colella M. Uso Integrato Di Terapia Cellulare Attiva E Onde D’urto Nella Fase Di Stabilizzazione Cicatriziale Post-Ustione. Università degli studi di bari Aldo Moro., 2015.

Aesthetic medicine

Carvalho GF, de Mesquita Filho J, Froes Meyer P, Ariel Ronzio O, Medeiros de Oliveira J, Martins Nóbrega M, Arend Barichello P, de Mendonça W, de Souza Fernandes A, Lima Cavalcante J, da Silva R. Avaliaçao Dos Efeitos Da Radiofrequência No Tecido Conjuntivo. Rev. Bras. Med. 2011;68:10-24

Yupakorn K, Amornvittayachan O, Udompataikul M. Efficacy of Monopolar Radiofrequency Device on Cellulite Treatment. Srinagarind Med J. 2010;25(4): 258-64.

Pinto R. Radiofrecuencia Monopolar Capacitiva / Resistiva De 0.5 Mhz En El Envejecimiento Cutáneo Facial. Medicina estética. 2009;20: 32-37.

Shin SU, Choi YM, Shim WJ, Lee HC, Kim KS. Effects of High Frequency Therapy on Localized Obesity. Journal of Korean Oriental Association for Study of Obesity. 2006;6(2):75-83.


Alguacil Diego IMA, Fernandez-Carnero J, Val SL, Cano-de-la-Cuerda R, Calvo-Lobo C, Piedrola RM, et al. Analgesic effects of a capacitive-resistive monopolar radiofrequency in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira (1992). 2019;65(2):156-64.

Molina A, Eschacho B, Molina MV, Mariscal YS. Cervicali, Lombalgie, Sciatalgie: Applicazione Del Sistema a Trasferimento Energetico Capacitivo. Servizio di Riabilitazione, Ospedale Universitario di Valladolid, 2003.

Takahashi K, Suyama T, Onodera M, Hirabayashi S, Tsuzuki N, Zhong-Shi L. Clinical Effects of Capacitive Electric Transfer Hyperthermia Therapy for Lumbago. J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 1999;11: 45-51.


Kumaran B, Watson T. Treatment using 448kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency improves pain and function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint: a randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy. 2019;105(1):98-107.

Vall J. Radiofrecuencia monopolar capacitiva / resistiva 448 kHz (INDIBA®), como terapia de rehabilitación en medicina deportiva Facultad de Biología, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. 2011.


Terranova A, Vermiglio G. Arena S. Cicciòe A, di Dio S, Vermiglio M. Monopolar Capacitive Resistive Radiofrequency 448 kHZ in the femur fracture post-chirurgical treatment. Eur Med Phys. 2008;44(Suppl 1)(3):1-2

Pelvic Floor

Bellacicco M. Trattamento Delle Disfunzioni Del Pavimento Pelvico Con Indiba® Activ: 3 Case Reports. Università degli studi di bari aldo moro, 2015.

Pavone C, Castrianni D, Romeo S, Napoli E, Usala M, Gambino G, et al. TECAR therapy for Peyronie’s disease: a phase-one prospective study. Great evidence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Urologia. 2013;80(2):148-53.

Cortés C. Radiofrecuencia Monopolar Capacitiva/Resistiva (Rfm Cap/Res), Sistema Indiba, en el tratamiento fisioterápico de disfunciones del suelo pélvico. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra e Indiba S.A., 2012.

Oh MM, Jin MH, Moon DG, Nam SG, Bae JH, Park SH. A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study of Radiofrequency Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome. J Urol. 2009; Vol. 181(4), Supplement, Sunday): 122.

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